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Forested area of Spain.

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Offline nick

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« Reply #40 on: October 19, 2007, 14:25 PM »
We've taken up the topic of the Enviromental History of Spain here

http://www.iberianatureforum.com/index.php/topic,823.0.html
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Offline Technopat

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Offline Clive

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« Reply #42 on: November 19, 2007, 11:06 AM »
A very interesting article at the BBC
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7093685.stm

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One of Western Europe's earliest known urban societies may have sown the seeds of its own downfall

Before the appearance of the Argaric civilisation, the slopes of Sierra de Baza were covered with a diverse forest dominated by deciduous oaks and other broad-leaved trees.

The area's tree cover was rapidly removed

But about 4,200 years ago - just after this civilisation emerges - significant amounts of charcoal appear in the pollen sequence. According to the study's authors, this is a sign Bronze Age people were setting fires to clear the forests for mining activities and grazing.

Not long afterwards, about 3,900 years ago, the diverse forest ecosystem disappears, to be replaced by monotonous and fire-prone Mediterranean scrub.
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Offline steveT

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« Reply #43 on: November 19, 2007, 21:30 PM »
Yes ..... I was just about to post it........

It fits in with the picture that many other researchers are putting forward ....... ie serious deforestation in specific regions .....some 2 - 4000 ya .... man being the most significant cause.

NB other areas having deforestaion much later.

SteveT

Offline Clive

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« Reply #44 on: January 17, 2008, 18:35 PM »
Whilst looking for information about Eucalyptus in Iberia for the topic at
http://www.iberianatureforum.com/index.php/topic,1106.0.html

I came across a web site that I have never seen before with some amazing content about forest plantation schemes of Spain... I haven't looked at the whole site yet but this page is amazing in its statements... Especially talking in millions of hectares!
http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5386e/x5386e02.htm

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Results of the afforestation program

A much more detailed analysis is required to give an insight into the full impact of the afforestation program on the Spanish economy as a whole. It is only since 1952 that the rhythm of work has been steadily increasing, and figures of over 100,000 hectares per year were not reached until 1953. But the case of the province of Huelva may be singled out to show some particular effects of the program.

In this province, the State Administration purchased or acquired by contract a total of about 84,000 hectares between 1942 and 1956. At the time of the transaction, all the land was covered mostly with undergrowth and scrub. The entire area was virtually uninhabited, except for the temporary presence of shepherds and a few farmers practicing shifting cultivation, moving to new tracts every 12 or 14 years. The only livestock was a few herds of goats, of very low yield. It could be said that the whole area was unproductive and uninhabited. Both the climate (not more than 400 millimeters irregularly distributed) and the soil (the most alluvial, podsolized sands) were extremely adverse.

The area afforested during the last few years is some 60,000 hectares, one half of which was planted with fast-growing species, mostly eucalyptus, acacia, black poplar, and the rest with slower-growing species, mainly pines.

As a result of this work, 21 new communities, with schools, recreation centers, etc., have been established, housing more than 10 thousand new settlers, 260 kilometers of new roads have been constructed, and a plant for cellulose pulp has been erected. This has completely changed the environment, transforming an almost desert region into one which is modern and highly productive. In effect, a transformation has been wrought in the very geography of the region.

A sum of slightly over 280 million pesetas has been invested in this projects, and this figure includes the purchase of the land. Approximately 10 thousand hectares of eucalyptus have already become productive, yielding annually more than 50,000 cubic meters of wood, at a value of 25 million pesetas, and it is estimated that the value of the reclaimed land now amounts to some 3,000 million pesetas.

I guess the quote above sums up the system for many parts of Iberia and
Quote
a transformation has been wrought in the very geography of the region.
Will be the main reason for the decline in biodiversity in these areas since the fifties.

off to look at this website a bit more
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Offline Clive

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« Reply #45 on: January 17, 2008, 19:20 PM »
http://www.fao.org/documents/

Type Spain into the search box...

The shark paper is amazing...
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Offline Technopat

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« Reply #46 on: March 28, 2008, 22:27 PM »
Greetings All,
Today’s Consejo de Ministros (En. anyone?) was presented with a report by the national parks agency (belonging to the environment ministry) as to the state of the trees in said areas: as of 1st January 2007, 24.3% were diseased or dead.

Quote
Casi una cuarta parte de la superficie arbolada de los Parques Nacionales está enferma
La contaminación, los incendios y la construcción de centrales energéticas son las principales causas


EUROPA PRESS - Madrid - 28/03/2008

La situación que atraviesan los Parques Nacionales españoles es grave. Según el informe que ha presentado la Red de Parques Nacionales (que depende del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente) al Consejo de Ministros un 24,3 por ciento de la superficie arbolada de los Parques Nacionales está enferma o muerta. El informe recogía la situación de estos espacios naturales a 1 de enero de 2007.

...

Quote
Este informe recoge la degradación de las masas forestales entre 2000 y 2006. Recuerda que hace algo más de un año había en España 13 Parques Nacionales, con una extensión de 330.000 hectáreas (en las que no están contadas las 18.396 que ocupa el Parque de Monfrague en Caceres porque fue nombrado zona protegida después), es decir, un 0,62 por ciento del territorio español. De ese espacio, casi un tercio (aproximadamente la superficie de 100 campos de fútbol) se encuentra en muy malas condiciones.

...

All of which confirms Technopat’s notoriously dim outlook on the health of protected areas in this country and elsewhere, needless to say. As for the health of non-protected areas ...

Regs.,
Technopat
PS.
I know it’s a bit much, after copying and pasting their article here, but given iberianatureforum’s newfound correct-spellingness, after passing over the 2 humdingers in Spanish in the above paragraph, and as a sort of therapy aimed at not getting too depressed at the start of a weekend, I thought we might try to spot the more subtle spelling mistake in the following one:

Quote
Además, en el periodo 2000-2006 se produjeron 129 incendios en los Parques Nacionales, que quemaron un total de 1.867 hectáreas (1.140 corresponden al parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada), es decir, un 0,56 por ciento de su superficie. Por otro lado, se ha detectado la presencia de 91 especies que no pertenecen originariamente a estos territorios y podrían convertirse en un peligro para las auctóctonas (de ellas 29 son especies de fauna vertebrada y 62 son variedades de flora).

Full article here at El País
http://www.elpais.com/articulo/sociedad/cuarta/parte/superficie/arbolada/Parques/Nacionales/enferma/elpepusoc/20080328elpepusoc_8/Tes

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Offline lisa

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« Reply #47 on: March 29, 2008, 14:49 PM »
Ow! autóctonas  :)
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Offline Technopat

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« Reply #48 on: June 24, 2008, 12:33 PM »
Greetings All,
Finally getting into the habit of checking out Nick’s iberianature.com before loggin’ in here to the Forum, and this morning came across an interesting snippet regarding protection of the yew forest in Sierra de Sueve - which I subsequently tried to find out more about, but to no avail. So if anyone can come up with further details…
However, did come across an article from the El Mundo Magazine  (from Feb. 2007) in which 10 “experts” rated/ranked 8 of Spain’s forests, and said forest was included. As usual, the methodology seems suspect, but the general content is nonetheless interesting.
Quote
•  1. Laurisilva canaria 6 votos.
•  2. Bosque mediterráneo de Los Alcornocales (Cádiz) 5 votos.
•  3. Bosque atlántico de la Reserva Natural de Muniellos (Asturias) 3 votos.
•  4. Pinsapares de las sierras de Grazalema y Las Nieves (Cádiz /Málaga) 3 votos.
•  5. Monte mediterráneo de El Pardo (Madrid) 2 votos.
•  6. Pinares de pino silvestre de Valsaín (Segovia) 2 votos.
•  7. Hayedo de Irati (Navarra) 2 votos.
•  8. Tejedas del Sueve (Asturias) 2 votos.
The experts consulted were:
Quote
Gonzalo Nieto Feliner, director del Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid;
Alejandro Sánchez, director ejecutivo de la Sociedad Española de Ornitología;
Juan López de Uralde, director de Greenpeace;
 Juan Carlos del Olmo, secretario general de WWF/Adena;
María de los Ángeles Nieto, portavoz de Ecologistas en Acción;
Antonio López Lillo, botánico;
Susana Domínguez Lerena, ingeniera forestal;
Emilio Blanco, botánico;
Luciano Labajos, botánico y jardinero
Alfredo Merino, quien esto escribe, que actuó como notario de las conclusiones.

Over-to-yew regs.,
Technopat

PS.
Sue and Clive’s Sierra de Grazalema came in 4th.
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I seem to remember y’all some of you not taking me seriously when I mentioned elsewhere that the Spanish Armada was responsible for large-scale felling of tres. The following “… y las demandas madereras para la Armada española pusieron cerco a los míticos bosques ibéricos…” from the same article bear me out (Sp. anyone?).
Technopat's disclaimer: If this posting seems over the top and/or gets your goat (Sp. anyone?), please accept my apologies and don't take it personally - it's just my instinctive tendency to put my foot in it whenever/wherever possible. See also:
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Offline Clive

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« Reply #49 on: June 24, 2008, 23:13 PM »
Not just the Armada Tp......

When sumac and mrtle became rarer in Andalucia and Extremadura (due to over exploitation of course) for the use in the tanning industry the cork oak was then harvested for its "tanbark" Local to me here in the Serrania de Ronda the hillsides are bare where once stood cork oak forest... 25,000 hectares were clear felled over a period of 21 years in the late 19th century to provide the raw material for the tanning factories...

The Sierra de las Nieves natural park today is around 20, 000 hectares.....Just to give an idea of the size.....

In the same instance felling to remove the home of the wolf (in order to make it easier to hunt and kill plus clearing to plant mono crops was widespread....

Clive

« Last Edit: June 24, 2008, 23:15 PM by Clive »
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Offline Technopat

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« Reply #50 on: February 11, 2009, 13:29 PM »
Greetings All,
Just half-watched an interesting documentary on Spain's reforestation (?), which among other things, mentioned the five (5) million trees felled only at the end of the 16th century for ship-building - oak for hulls and pines for masts.

This, together with successive sales of humungous amounts of public forest to private landowners who did with it what they know best - capitalize aka ... no this is a family forum so shall keep me thoughts to meself - led to serious deforestation, which in turn led directly to serious flooding problems all over the country.

The 2nd Republic set up a forestry commission to reforest the country, but plans were interrupted by civil war and some years later Franco started a reforestation programme, generally consisting of planting wrong species in the wrong places.

Today's refor. progs. are interesting, one of which was esp. dear to my heart:
planting trees 1.5 metres to 2 metres apart and fillin gthe gaps with spores of Boletus edulis (Sp. anyone?)  :dancing:
Technopat's disclaimer: If this posting seems over the top and/or gets your goat (Sp. anyone?), please accept my apologies and don't take it personally - it's just my instinctive tendency to put my foot in it whenever/wherever possible. See also:
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Offline Bob M

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« Reply #51 on: April 11, 2009, 16:02 PM »
We're not short of naturally regrowing forest here in the Basque country. Lot's of it is either oak or holm oak. Often when I try to follow a "path" which my GPS tells me exists it's simply impossible to get through for the regrowth.

Offline Technopat

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« Reply #52 on: October 07, 2009, 19:17 PM »
Greetings All,
Time for bedtime reading tree update:
WWF, in collaboration with Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, has just published its report, “Los bosques que nos quedan. Propuestas para su restauración”

Highlights include:
-Woodland in Spain covers some 13,1 million hectares (based on the II Inventario Forestal Nacional and the Mapa Forestal de España), which is 29 per cent of the surface they should be covering.

-Half of the forested land in Spain doesn’t have [enough] trees - La mitad de la superficie forestal española está desarbolada (Can any of youse guys 'n' gals come up with a better translation of this one?)

-Only 13 per cent of forested land is under some sort of management scheme.

-Less than 1 per cent of forested land is certified by some sort of forestry certification scheme.

-Forest fires affect 120,000 hectares a year

WWF reckon that by 2030 it will be necessary to restore two and a half million hectares by planting 2,000 million trees and bushes at a cost of 4,000 million euros and generating 150,000 jobs, adding that their calculation differs greatly from the government’s proposal of recovering 60,000 hectares with 45 million trees at a cost of 90 million euros and 3,000 new jobs.

The-biggest-mistake-the-human-race-ever-made-was-to-come-down-from-the-trees regs.,
Technopat

PS:
Bob, when you refer to regrowth, what sort of land are you referring to? Protected parkland? Cotos privados de caza?
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Offline Clive

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« Reply #53 on: October 07, 2009, 19:58 PM »
Mind boggling and if we go back to my original observations in this old as an oak tree topic I think thats the gist of my thoughts.
Quote
Half of the forested land in Spain doesn’t have [enough] trees - La mitad de la superficie forestal española está desarbolada (Can any of youse guys 'n' gals come up with a better translation of this one?)

Land classified as "forest" might not have any trees in the same way that land classed as "agricultural" might hold three golf courses and 5000 houses.... :)

I think the key is in how land is classified and this effects the figures... I look out onto a mountain from my office and I see less than 10 percent covered in trees.... It is a "forest" though
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Offline Technopat

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« Reply #54 on: October 07, 2009, 20:44 PM »
Greetings All,
Lies, lies and statistics as someone once put it.
Stop me if you've read this one before :technodevil:, but the former mayor of Madrid, Álvarez de Manzano,* one of the biggest bigots (OK, so sue me) yours truly has ever come across over years of following who's who in Spanish politics, once claimed that Madrid has more parks and trees than any other city in Europe.

Of course, anyone who has ever been to central London, just to name one city at random, knows that is not true. However, many madrileñ@s I speak to still believe it, and as good citizens, defend it vigorously. I was never able to find out what he based his ridiculous statement on, one of many,** but I reckon he probably had someone calculate the number of kilometres of roads in Madrid and extrapolate the number of trees per kilometre, etc., etc.

* Mayor of Madrid condemned by the Court of Public Audits to return 103,463.43 euros

**the same bast sinverguenza (En. anyone?), following the murder of yet another woman at the hands of her partner, more or less said that such crimes were obviously more frequent among couples who were not married. Over the following couple of days, when it transpired that the couple were in actual fact married, and the mayor was forced to rectify in public re,. the civil status of the victim, he stated that he was entitled to his own opinion and nobody could criticise him for that.

And-I-was-looking-forward-to-a-calm-evening regs.,
Technopat
Technopat's disclaimer: If this posting seems over the top and/or gets your goat (Sp. anyone?), please accept my apologies and don't take it personally - it's just my instinctive tendency to put my foot in it whenever/wherever possible. See also:
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Offline Technopat

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« Reply #55 on: April 02, 2011, 19:03 PM »
Greetings All,
Just a snippet to add to Nick's list of mindless stats.:
Greenpeace: sólo a la especie Eucalyptus globulus, en la península ibérica se localiza el 53% (31% Portugal, 22% España) de la superficie mundial ocupada por esta especie.

(The Iberian peninsula contains 53% of the world's surface devoted to Eucalyptus globulus)

"Bad" trees are better than no trees?

Regs.,
Technopat

UPDATE & NUANCE of ABOVE SNIPPET:

The snippet refers only to that specific species, not eucalyptus in general:
http://www.greenpeace.org/espana/es/news/Los-ecologistas-proponen-soluciones-para-acabar-con-el-problema-de-las-plantaciones-de-eucalipto/ ...Tras Galicia, la región con más superficie de eucalipto en nuestro país es Andalucía (156.000 ha), seguido de Extremadura ( (75.000), Cantabria (60.000 ha), Asturias (58.000 ha) y el País Vasco (14.500 ha). España dispone del 7% de la superficie mundial dedicadas a las plantaciones de eucalipto, que suman más de 20 millones de hectáreas. Brasil, India y China son los principales países con este tipo de plantaciones. Si tenemos en cuenta solo a la especie Eucalyptus globulus, en la península ibérica se localiza el 53% (31% Portugal, 22% España) de la superficie mundial ocupada por esta especie.
« Last Edit: April 02, 2011, 19:11 PM by Technopat »
Technopat's disclaimer: If this posting seems over the top and/or gets your goat (Sp. anyone?), please accept my apologies and don't take it personally - it's just my instinctive tendency to put my foot in it whenever/wherever possible. See also:
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Offline nick

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« Reply #56 on: April 02, 2011, 21:26 PM »
Damn that's telling TP, many thanks for that one. Will post this somewhere. Forest fires in Galicia? Crops of trees burning more like.
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Offline lilme

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« Reply #57 on: April 08, 2011, 10:25 AM »
At rainforest.mongabay.com you'll find some information about the change of forest cover in spain from 1990-2005.


Spain's not the only country with a problem of deforestation. Once the whole lot of Germany was forest and marsh, but nowadays we have to actually rebuild forests. I think the biggest forest left in Germany is the black forest (called like that because the trees stand so close that you'll have the impression it's black underneath). Most trees there are pine trees.

What's the largest area of forest you have in Spain? And what kind of trees grow there most?

Simon

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« Reply #58 on: April 26, 2011, 09:51 AM »
Hi Lilme et al,

I'm not sure but I think the Irati Forest is the largest natural forested area in Spain. It certainly is with regard to Beech tees (Fagus sylvatica) - if not in the whole of Europe*.

I also recall seeing a TV feature* on the Internation Day of the forests, saying that Catalonia was the most forested of Spain's Autonomous Regions - but that was on the Catalan TV Channel!

Regs

Simon
* it wasn't really a feature, more a comment made by the presenter during a report, so I can't find this on their search facility  >:(


Offline nick

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« Reply #59 on: April 26, 2011, 11:00 AM »
Massive question Lilime,

I recommend you read through this thread from the begiinning as we all did quite a bot of research on this question:

http://www.iberianatureforum.com/index.php?topic=682.0
Nick
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